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What is a Zero-Knowledge Proof?

The future of coordination relies heavily on the successful verification of information — and zero-knowledge proofs have a significant role to play here. This article explores what zero-knowledge proofs are, how they work, and why they are so important to privacy-preserving technology.

31 May 2022
Robert Mitson
  • cryptography
  • blockchain
Categories
Understanding the basics of coordination
03 March 2022

Coordination happens everyday, all around us. But what is coordination as a concept, and why would our world cease to function without it? Learn about coordination, and how it enables mutually beneficial actions, which is foundational to Anoma's architecture.

  • blockchain
  • coordination
  • anoma basics
An Introduction to zk-SNARK: Plonkup
04 January 2022

As a consolidation of the Plonk and Plookup proving schemes, Plonkup represents an evolved zk-SNARK that provides a more efficient and scalable zero-knowledge solution.

  • Anoma Tangram
  • cryptography
Hash Functions in Plonkup
20 December 2021

Plonkup's combination of arithmetic and lookup gates allows hash functions to be written with much smaller circuits.

  • cryptography
Agents of Anoma: Matchmaking Node Operators
09 December 2021

The matchmaker is the second component of the intent gossip network, facilitating the matching of user intents from any number of parties to execute a mutually beneficial trade. Learn about what the matchmaker is, how the matchmaking process works, and what it takes to operate a matchmaking node.

  • blockchain
  • agents of anoma
Agents of Anoma: Intent Gossip Node Operators
24 November 2021

As an integral part of the intent gossip network, intent gossip nodes are responsible for propagating intents and enabling the required mechanism of counterparty discovery for bartering. Learn about the role, how it works, and what it takes to become an intent gossip node operator on Anoma.

  • blockchain
  • agents of anoma
Agents of Anoma: Validators
05 November 2021

This series, ‘agents of anoma,’ focuses on the different roles you can take on in the growing community. Follow the series to learn more about what each role entails, and why it is important to Anoma. This first component of the series, ‘Validators,’ explains the concepts that define the role, what it takes to be a validator, its importance, and how this relates to the security of the network.

  • blockchain
  • agents of anoma
Heterogeneous Paxos and Multi-Chain Atomic Commits
13 September 2021

Under some conditions, Heterogeneous Paxos allows for atomic cross-domain transactions, where learners do not necessarily share the same failure assumptions. Building on Heterogeneous Paxos, we hope to exploit the high intersection between validator sets of different blockchain to create a heterogeneous consensus protocol for atomic multi-chain transactions. This will extend the capabilities of IBC to allow for arbitrary communication between chains within an atomic transaction.

  • consensus
Interoperability on Anoma
07 September 2021

Anoma implements the inter-blockchain communication protocol (IBC) to communicate with other blockchains. By implementing IBC, Anoma gets closer to its goal of facilitating private payments using arbitrary assets regardless of how or by whom those assets were created.

  • blockchain
  • Anoma Tangram
Enabling N-party transactions with Anoma’s state machine
01 September 2021

Anoma’s state machine allows the bartering of arbitrary assets among multiple parties efficiently. With the use of a range of validity predicates, users are able to utilize Anoma to its fullest extent, expressing their desires and capabilities on intents for their transactional needs.

  • blockchain
  • Anoma Tangram
Ferveo Cryptography Overview
16 August 2021

Ferveo is a fast platform for distributed key generation (DKG) and threshold decryption that can be integrated into the Tendermint Byzantine Fault Tolerant consensus protocol. Using Ferveo, a validator set can generate a distributed private key where each validator's share of the private key is weighted proportionally to their staked amount. Ferveo allows the validator set to commit to encrypted transactions prior to threshold decryption, preventing public visibility of pending transactions in the mempool and helping prevent transaction front-running.

  • cryptography
  • blockchain
Demystifying recursive zero-knowledge proofs
26 July 2021

Recursive zero-knowledge proofs are new cryptographic primitives relevant to the Anoma blockchain use case. In this article, we investigate the possible alternatives for verifying blockchain circuits efficiently. Our main interest is in estimating the efficiency of pairing-based constructions.

  • cryptography
Fractal Scaling
19 July 2021

Fractal scaling is Anoma’s approach to scaling throughput, in which transactions are split across local instances that any user is allowed to create to fit their needs. These local instances are all interoperable with each other, and users can move their assets to whichever instance is most convenient for their transactions.

  • blockchain
  • Anoma Tangram
Demystifying ZEXE
12 July 2021

ZEXE is a ledger-based system that allows for the running of multiple applications atop the same ledger in a way that transactions reveal no information about the particular computations which are performed. This post describes the main components ZEXE is built upon, and explains the way privacy is achieved.

  • cryptography
  • blockchain
Providing secure on-chain randomness on Anoma
06 July 2021

Anoma uses a threshold BLS digital signature to generate an unpredictable, bias-resistant and publicly verifiable on-chain pseudorandom number. This process will be implemented so that a pseudorandom number will be produced with every new block.

  • cryptography
  • blockchain
  • Anoma Tangram
Side-channel analysis for distributed ledgers
28 June 2021

In this post we provide an introduction to the topic of side-channel attacks and discuss them in the context of blockchains.

  • blockchain
  • security
Enabling multi-asset privacy on Anoma
21 June 2021

The multi-asset shielded pool allows multiple assets to share the same shielded pool. By implementing it, Anoma enables its users to have access to zero-knowledge privacy for multiple assets.

  • cryptography
  • blockchain
  • Anoma Tangram
Fractal Upgrades
10 June 2021

Fractal upgrades is an approach to protocol upgrades unique to Anoma, allowing multiple proposed versions to be tested in parallel with value at stake. A canonical switch happens after extensive testing and stakeholders stating their preference through intents.

  • blockchain
  • Anoma Tangram
Enabling counterparty discovery with Anoma’s intent gossip and matchmaking system
29 May 2021

In order to conduct a trade on Anoma, parties first need to locate suitable trading partners. The intent gossip and matchmaking system is the subprotocol of Anoma responsible for enabling users to broadcast what kind of barter they are looking for and find parties whose needs match their own.

  • blockchain
  • Anoma Tangram
Validity Predicates
17 May 2021

Used to determine the validity of state transitions, validity predicates are a unique feature of Anoma that offers improved ergonomics to handle state changes compared to stateful smart contracts.

  • blockchain
  • Anoma Tangram
Demystifying HybridDKG - A Distributed Key Generation Scheme
10 May 2021

HybridDKG is one of the latest distributed key generation schemes and can operate in an asynchronous environment, making it the most viable DKG scheme to use over the internet.

  • cryptography
Ferveo: A Distributed Key Generation Scheme for Front Running Protection
03 May 2021

Built upon ground-breaking academic research in cryptography, Ferveo is a component of the Anoma protocol that implements a distributed key generation scheme (DKG) to enable protection from front running.

  • cryptography
  • blockchain
  • Anoma Tangram
Demystifying Aggregatable Distributed Key Generation
12 April 2021

A novel component of Anoma is a Distributed Key Generation (DKG) scheme. George Gkitsas describes the concepts in DKG, starting with simple constructions, building up to the aggregatable DKG.

  • cryptography