Papers & Research

Looking to explore Anoma further? Anoma is built on cutting-edge distributed ledger and cryptographic research by leading developers and creators in the blockchain space Gain an in-depth understanding of the research and deeper concepts behind the protocols by reading the Anoma papers, as well as research papers authored by members of our team.

Anoma papers

The Anoma papers explore the core motivation and vision behind the Anoma protocols, serving as a comprehensive guide for users, developers and stakers alike.

The Anoma Whitepaper

The Anoma whitepaper provides a detailed introduction of how the Anoma protocol works, what features the protocol provides to users and developers, and how these features are enabled.

The Anoma Vision Paper

The Anoma vision paper investigates the nature of coordination and presents Anoma’s vision to become a coordination mechanism with versatility that traditional fiat currencies fail to provide.

Research papers

Anoma’s research papers offer subject-specific analytical studies in areas relevant to the architecture of the protocol, authored or co-authored by members of the team.

Bandersnatch: a fast elliptic curve built over the BLS12-381 scalar field

Masson, Sanso and Zhang introduce Bandersnatch, a new elliptic curve built over the BLS12-381 scalar field. The Bandersnatch curve has a small discriminant, a lower multiplication cost in comparison to the Jubjub curve introduced by ZCash. This paper presents a method to generate curves like Bandersnatch with specific properties, the curve in different models, and compares the scalar multiplication algorithm over the Bandersnatch and Jubjub curves from a practical perspective.

PlonKup: Reconciling PlonK with plookup

Co-authored by Joshua Fitzgerald, this paper presents a fully succinct zk-SNARK called Plonkup as a consolidation of Plonk and Plookup proving schemes. With a simplified, more elegant permutation argument, Plonkup leverages Plonk’s small proofs, fast verification and universal setup with Plookup’s lookup tables. As a result, the underlying protocol benefits from substantial performance enhancements and efficiency gains for proof circuits.

Bridging Sapling: Private Cross-Chain Transfers

Fatemeh Shirazi, Alistair Stewart and Aleixo Sanchez present ZCLAIM in this paper: a framework for trustless cross-chain asset migration based on the Zcash privacy-protecting protocol. ZCLAIM integrates with an implementation of the Sapling version of Zcash, aiming to overcome privacy and design problems that interoperability schemes face.